The oenologist responds

What does DOC mean?

The “Controlled designation of origin” (DOC) is a label created in the fifties by the lawyer Rolando Ricci, official of the Ministry of Agriculture of the time, and it was instituted by the Decree No 930 of 12 July 1963. It is used in enology to certify the region of origin and the geographic area in which the grape harvest takes place. The wine production is connected to the natural environment and to the human factors and respect a specific production regulations. 

The Doc classification has been included in the Community category PDO since 2010.

What does PGI mean?

The label PGI (protected geographic indication) indentifies a foodstuff, originating in a region or town, that for its qualities, reputation and characteristics is identifiable with its geographical origin and at least one phase of its production and of its transformation should take place in the area indicated. 

It is a guarantee for the consumer because the label designates foodstuff that meets certain requirements respecting specific disciplinary measures. Furthermore, it protects the producers from imitations and unfair competition. 

According to enology, it means that at least 85% of the grapes must come from this area. 

IGT (Typical geographic indication) wines, according to the new wine classification, are included in the category of PGI wines.

How to taste wine?

The temperature for tasting wine is important because it may influence the ability to perceive and appreciate different sensations. The difference between the service temperatures ranges from 6 to 8 °C for sparkling and semi-sparkling wines and from 18 to 20 °C for structured and mature red wines. 

The lower temperatures enhance the sensations of wine hardness highlighting its flavor and tannins while the higher temperatures enhance its softness and allow to appreciate the complexity of the bouquet of scents of the wine.

Recommended service temperatures for wines:

Dry and sweet sparkling wines and semi-sparkling wines 6-8 °C

Young and fruity, dry white wines 8-10 °C

Aromatic dry wines and rosé wines 10-12°C

Raisin and fortified white wines 12-14 °C

Raisin and fortified red wines 14-16 °C

Mature white wines 12-14 °C

Delicate red wines 14-16 °C

Red wines with a good structure and tannins 16-18 °C

Red wines with a good structure and tannins and a long aging 18-20 °C

What is a barrique?

Barrique is a wooden barrel used for the aging of wines and spirits. There are several kinds of barrique depending on wood and capacity but the French oak one is the most used. 

Compared to steel and concrete, the barrique is a dynamic container, having a porosity that ensures a slow and regular supply of oxygen and that releases typical aromas such as ellagic tannins, phenolic aldehydes, lactones and phenolic acids, which give the wine a greater complexity.

What does “meditation wine” mean?

This expression indicates a category of wines that can scarcely be matched with a specific food.

At the beginning, the wine culture was mostly based on the production of wines that were only drunk during meals.

After the invention of new techniques, the meditation wines appeared on the market. They are mostly tasted after lunch or dinner for a moment of extreme relaxation.